In general, the passive loss rules under Code Sec. 469 limit deductions and credits from passive trade or business activities. The passive loss rules apply to individuals, estates and trusts, and closely held corporations. A passive activity for this purpose is a trade or business activity in which the taxpayer owns an interest but does not materially participate. “Material participation” means that the taxpayer is involved in the operation of the activity on a basis that is regular, continuous, and substantial. (Reg. § 1.469-5) Deductions attributable to passive activities, to the extent they exceed income from passive activities, generally may not be deducted against other income and are carried forward and treated as deductions and credits from passive activities in the next year.
Under pre-Act law, Code Sec. 469 provided a limitation on excess farm losses that applies to taxpayers other than C corporations. If a taxpayer other than a C corporation received an applicable subsidy for the tax year, the amount of the “excess farm loss” was not allowed for the tax year, and was carried forward and treated as a deduction attributable to farming businesses in the next tax year. An excess farm loss for a tax year meant the excess of aggregate deductions that were attributable to farming businesses over the sum of aggregate gross income or gain attributable to farming businesses plus the threshold amount. The threshold amount was the greater of (1) $300,000 ($150,000 for married individuals filing separately), or (2) for the 5-consecutive-year period preceding the tax year, the excess of the aggregate gross income or gain attributable to the taxpayer's farming businesses over the aggregate deductions attributable to the taxpayer's farming businesses.
New law. For tax years beginning after Dec. 31, 2017 and before Jan. 1, 2026, the Act provides that the excess farm loss limitation doesn't apply, and instead a noncorporate taxpayer's “excess business loss” is disallowed. Under the new rule, excess business losses are not allowed for the tax year but are instead carried forward and treated as part of the taxpayer's net operating loss (NOL) carryforward in subsequent tax years. This limitation applies after the application of the passive loss rules described above.
An excess business loss for the tax year is the excess of aggregate deductions of the taxpayer attributable to the taxpayer's trades and businesses, over the sum of aggregate gross income or gain of the taxpayer plus a threshold amount. The threshold amount for a tax year is $500,000 for married individuals filing jointly, and $250,000 for other individuals, with both amounts indexed for inflation.
In the case of a partnership or S corporation, the provision applies at the partner or shareholder level. Each partner's or S corporation shareholder's share of items of income, gain, deduction, or loss of the partnership or S corporation is taken into account in applying the above limitation for the tax year of the partner or S corporation shareholder; and regulatory authority is provided to apply the new provision to any other pass-through entity to the extent necessary, as well as to require any additional reporting as IRS determines is appropriate to carry out the purposes of the provision.